BERKELEY is a parish, comprising the corporate and market town of Berkeley, with the tithings of ALKINGTON, BREADSTONE, HAMFALLOW, HINTON and HAM, and STONE, 114 miles from London, 15 south-south-west from Gloucester, 7 from Thornbury, and 19 north from Bristol; it is a seaport and railway station and polling place for the Western division of the county. In Berkeley hundred, Thornbury union, Dursley county court district, rural deanery of Dursley, Gloucester archdeaconry, and diocese of Gloucester and Bristol. The town is situated near the navigable river Severn, about 2 ½ miles west from the Berkeley Road station on the Bristol and Birmingham railway, and 3½ south from the Gloucester and Berkeley canal. In the reign of Edward I this town was a borough, but the charter has been annulled, though there is still a corporation.
The petty sessions for the upper division of the hundred are held at the petty sessional court house. The town is lighted with gas.
The church of St. Mary is a large ancient stone edifice, in the Early English, or Pointed style; it consists of large chancel, with an ornamental stone screen dividing it from the nave and aisles, with seven pointed arches on either side, resting on clustered pillars: it was thoroughly restored and re-seated in 1866, at a cost of about £5,000, which was defrayed by the late Lord Fitshardinge, supplemented by the contributions of the parishioners; there is a large north porch with chamber over it; in the chancel is a handsome stained memorial window to Dr. Edward Jenner, which was erected by public subscription in 1873, at a cost of £500: the square tower, 90 feet high, is about 50 yards from the church, and contains 6 bells; the Berkeley family have a mausoleum on the south side of the chancel, and the organ is on the north. The register dates from the year 1664.
The living is a rectory and vicarage, the yearly value being for the rectorial £970, and the vicarial £750, in the gift of Lord Fitzhardinge, and held by the Rev John Seton-Karr, M.A. of Magdalen College, Oxford; the Rev Jonathon Lett Stackhouse, M.A. of Exeter College Oxford, domestic chaplain to Lord Fitzhardinge, is curate in sole charge.
The district church of St. John, at Purton, is a stone building in the Early English style, erected in 1874, at a cost of £1,000 ; it consists of apse, nave, porch, and one bell in an open turret. There is a chapel Wick, erected by the landed proprietors in 1875, which is also used as a day school. There is an iron church (St Michael's) at Breadstone, opened December 19th 1878, and an iron church at Sharpness. Here are Congregational and Wesleyan chapels.
There is an endowed Free School and a National school supported solely by Lord Fitzhardinge: there is also a National school at Wick, a Church school at Sharpness supported by the Dock Company, and a Public Elementary school at Purton, maintained by George Muller, esq. of Bristol.
A Cottage Hospital, under the management of Lady Fitzhardinge, was established in 1877.
There is a reading room and library in the Town Hall.
In this town was born and buried Dr. Edward Jenner, who introduced the practice of vaccination.
There is a Burial Board, consisting of nine members: the late Lord Fitzhardinge lent the money for the purchase of a piece of ground for a cemetery, which was completed in 1865; the debt being paid off from the poor rates of the parish; the cemetery is at the north end of the town; it is 3 acres in extent, and has a lych gate and house for the sexton: the first interment was made in 1866.
The trade consists chiefly in coals, timber, malt and cheese. Fairs are held on the 14th of May and 2nd Monday in December, for cattle and pigs, and markets are held on the first Wednesday in each month excepting May and December.
There are numerous charities, amounting in the whole to £130 yearly.
The manor embraces nearly thirty parishes, and is one of the most extensive in the kingdom: it was granted by William the Norman to Roger de Berkeley; Henry II deprived his successor of the title and estates for espousing the cause of Stephen, and conferred them upon Robert Fitzhardinge, who assumed the title of Baron de Berkeley. In this castle, after experiencing all the indignities and cruelties that could be conceived, the unfortunate Edward II was murdered by his keepers—the Lords Gournay and Montravers; above the steps leading to the keep is a room called the Dungeon, containing the original furniture, and which is shown as having been the place where the deed was committed: the castle is the residence of Lord Fitzhardinge, and is one of the most ancient and interesting feudal fortresses yet retaining in England: it was built in the latter end of the 12th century, by Robert Fitzhardinge, on whom the Great Manor of Berkeley had been conferred by King Henry II., and it has remained in the possession of his descendants down to the present time, the present Lord Fitzhardinge being the twenty-eighth owner in direct descent in the male line: it consists of a keep, almost circular in form, an inner courtyard, surrounded by buildings of antique castellated form, containing a noble hall, a chapel, and a great number of apartments which have undergone no more alteration than was necessary to accommodate them to modern use; the dungeon room in the keep in which King Edward II was murdered in 1327, remains in very much its original condition: the castle was besieged by the Parliamentary forces in 1645, and was surrendered upon honourable terms, but was afterwards given back to George Lord Berkley, on condition of its being rendered incapable of defence: the castle is surrounded by terraces bright with flowers, and a beautiful lawn studded with majestic Scotch fir trees and cedars.
White Cliff Park, one mile south-west of the castle is the property of Lord Fitzhardinge; it is about 330 acres in extent, and is used as a deer park.
The principal landowners are Lord Fitzhardinge, John James Croome, Thomas Breadstone Croome and William James Marsh, esqrs, and the Rev. Sir Edward Harry Vaughan Colt, bart.
The soil is various, with sand and clay; subsoil marl, clay and gravel. The area of the entire parish is 13,420 acres of land and 2,320 of water: gross estimated rentals—Berkeley, £2,681; Alkington, £11,368: Breadstone, £2,611; Ham and Stone, £9,832; Hamfallow, £5,834; Hinton £8,443;
The population in 1871 was,
Berkeley Borough 1,161
Alkington tithing, 1 mile east, 921
Breadstone tithing 2 miles north-east, 140
Ham tithing, ½ mile south, 635
Hamfallow tithing and Hanmore and Wansell hamlets, 3 miles north, 928
Hinton tithing and Purton hamlet, 3 miles north, 562
Stone chapelry, 3 miles south, 260. More details under a separate heading.
Parish Clerk, vacant.
POST, MONEY ORDER & TELEGRAPH OFFICE, Savings Bank & Government Annuity & Insurance Office.—Daniel Ford, postmaster.
Letters are delivered at 6.45 a.m. and 8 p.m.; dispatched at 4.30 a.m. & 7.5 p.m.
Money order office open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
COUNTY MAGISTRATES Attending the Petty Sessions.
Herbert Jenner Fust, esq.
Samuel Long, esq.
Herbert Jenner Fust, jun. Esq.
Clerk, Charles Scott B.A.
Petty Sessions are held at the Petty Sessional Court.—Berkeley, & all the tithings therein, viz.; Alkington, Breadstons, Hamfallow, Hinton & Ham & Stone
Mayor, Daniel Sutton
Sergeant-at-Mace, Frederick J. Sermon
Aldermen from the years,
1852 & 1868 David Legge
1853 & 1869 William Gaisford
1854 & 1871 John Cary
1859 Lord Fitzhardinge
1862 & 1867 James Gastrel Phillips, esq.
1863, 1864 & 1878 Daniel Sutton esq.
1866 Alexander Mackintosh, esq/
1867 Octavius Long esq.
1870 Isaac Thomas Bridgman
1872 William Sharland
1876 James Herbert Crook
Accident ; Clerical Medical & General Life ; Law Fire & North British Life &Fire, C Scott B.A.
Norwich British Life & Fire, W. Legge
Phoenix Fire, Mrs. S. Parslow
Provident Life, T. Edwards, The Bank
Sun Fire, T. Adams
Excise Office, 'Berkeley Arms'
Stamp Office, Thomas Adams, distributor
Police Station, Thomas Taylor, sergeant
Clerk to the Magistrates for the Upper Division of the Hundred, to Highway Board, to Burial Board, to Gas Inspectors & Sanitary Committee & Steward to Lord Fitzhardinge's Manors in the County of Gloucester, Charles Scott, B.A.
Assistant Overseers, Thomas Greenfield, Berkeley; Thomas King, jun. Bevington; George Evans, Woodford.
Registrar of Births Deaths & Marriages, Hy Codrington
Deputy Registrar, Arthur Rodway
Relieving Officer, Henry Codrington
Harbour Master, James Calway, Sharpness
Customs (Examining Officer), Charles Cox, Sharpness
Sub-Agent & Surveyor to Lloyds, Jas. Calway, Sharpness
Free, Rev. John Seton-Karr, M.A. master; Noah Gilbert, deputy master
National, Amoss Moss, master; miss Sophia Ponting, mistress
National, Wick, Miss Silvia Bowkett, mistress
Church (infants'), Sharpness, Miss Mary Eleanor Burton, mistress
Public Elementary, Purton, James Winter, master
CONVEYANCE.— Omnibus from the 'Berkeley Arms' to meet every train at the Berkeley road, or Berkeley stations.
Berkeley Road, William Day Chorley Station master
Berkeley, William Mabbett, station master
Sharpness, L.O. Kidd, station master
Sharpness is a seaport and terminus of the Sharpness branch of the Midland railway, in the tithing of Hinton, 3 miles north-by-west from Berkeley. Here are extensive docks which were opened November 25th 1874, and consist of a tidal basin 545 feet in length by 250 feet in width, lock 320 feet by 60 feet, floating dock 2,200 feet in length and 24 feet in depth, and graving dock 350 feet in length by 50 feet in width, and with a depth of water of 15 feet. Ships of moderate tonnage now go direct to Gloucester by way of the Gloucester and Sharpness ship canal. A bridge is in course of construction across the river Severn, which will connect the docks with the coal fields of Wales; when completed there will be facilities for shipping coal from this port, which will then, doubtless, become a thriving place.
POST, MONEY ORDER & TELEGRAPH OFFICE & Savings Bank.—Oliver George Marling, subpostmaster. Letters arrive from Berkeley at 8 a.m., dispatched at 6 p.m.
Fitzhardinge Lord, Berkeley castle
Bartlett Rev. Arthur Rbt. M.A. [curate]
Bridgeman Isaac Thomas
Crewe Rev. Walter Francis [curate] Sharpness
Cooke James Herbert
Croome James, Breadstone
Evans Rev. David [Congregational]
Hadley Timothy, Purton
Hadley William Pearce
Hickes, The Misses
Hooper Thomas, Lion house, Newport
Jones Richard, Acton house
Long William Alkington
Marsh Miss, Breadstone
Marsh William John Lorridge farm
Matthews William, Wanswell
Palairett Captain Charles Harvey
Scott Charles, B.A. Actree house
Sermon Frederick Jeremiah
Stackhouse Rev. Jonathon Lett, M.A. [curate in charge]
Woolright Mrs. Salter house
Ackland Elizabeth (Mrs.), shopkeeper
Adams Thomas, linen draper & farmer
Aldridge Edward, hairdresser
Allen Charles, farmer Heathfield
Allen Robert, farmer, Blackhall
Allen Wm., farmer & cattle dealer, Clapton
Alpass George, furniture dealer
Alpass John, beer retailer, Hamfallow
Alpass John, jun, grocer
Alpass Thomas, grocer & baker
Ashby Edwin, beer retailer, Oldminster
Ayliffe Charles & James, carpenters & wheelwrights
Ayliffe Charles, brickmaker
Bailey Robert, farmer, Abwell
Bailey Thomas Pearce, farmer, Walgaston farm, Mobley
Baker Elias, George
Baker John, shopkeeper
Ballinger George, farmer, Hogsdown
Ballinger Henry, farmer, Newport
Barber Henry, farmer, Blisbury
Barber John, farmer, Woodland farm
Barrett Elizabeth (Mrs.), beer retailer, Halmore
Barter James, farmer, Wick
Barton Elias, farmer, Oakleys farm
Barton Richard, farmer, Goldwick
Barton Susanna (Mrs.), farmer, Bevington
Bell Edward Collinson, chemist
Bell Jemima (Mrs.), milliner
Bennett Elizabeth (Mrs.), Boar's Head
Booth & Co. Timber merchants. Sharpness
Bragg Elias, White Hart, Newport
Bridgeman Isaac Thomas, surgeon
Brown Gopsill & Son, sack contractors
Calway James, harbourmaster, & sub-agent & surveyor to Lloyd's Agency, Sharpness
Carrington William, butcher
Cary John, farmer, Hamfield
Chard John, Old Bell, Alkington
Churchill John, baker
Clark Daniel, fancy repository
Clark Peter, smith & ironmonger
Clark Thomas, brickmaker, Oakhanger
Clark Thomas, park keeper to Lord Fitzhardinge, White Cliff park
Clutterbuck John, farmer, Buckets hill
Codrington, Eliza Ann & Anna Maria (Misses), ladies school
Codrington Henry, registrar of births, deaths & marriages & relieving officer
Cook Charles, farmer, Halmore
Cook George, beer retailer
Cook Job, Crown, Newport
Cooke James Herbert, land agent to Lord Fitzhardinge
Cooke Joseph Chamberlain, shopkeeper, Sharpness
Cope Ellen (Mrs.), Swan
Cope George, plasterer
Cope James, plasterer
Copeland Hannah (Miss), ladies' school
Corbett Harcourt Edmund, chemist
Cornock John, jun, farmer, Blanchwrth
Cornock Mary (Mrs.), farmer, Breadstone
Cottage Hospital (J.Y. Bridgeman, medical attendant)
Cox James, farmer, Rookery farm
Cox Robert, farmer, Woodford
Creese Edmund, farmer, Halmore
Creese Henry, farmer, Halmore
Cullimore James, farmer, Swanley grn
Curtis Albert Aug. Chemist, Sharpness
Daly Robert, ship builder, Sharpness
Dauncey William, farmer, Crawless farm
Daw Hy. Farmer, Floodgate farm, Ham
Dowell Amelia (Mrs.), Coal Merchant
Edwards Frederic, manager to branch of Gloucestershire Banking Co.
Evans George, farmer, Woodford
Fear Benjamin, cooper & brewer
Ford Charles, farmer, Clapton
Fore Samuel, coal & corn merchant, Sharpness; & at Nailsworth
Fox S.H. & Co. Corn warehouse, Sharpness
Foxwell Benjamin, farmer, Breadstone
Gabb Henry, farmer, Wick
Gabb John, farrier, Woodford
Gas Works (Nathanl. Moffatt, proprtr)
Gazard James, farmer, Panthurst
Gazard Thomas, farmer, Prior's Wood
Gazard William, farmer, Halmore
Gloucestershire Banking Co. (Branch) Frederic Edwards, manager); draw on Union Bank of London
Glover Mry. Ann (Mrs.), wine & Spirit mer.
Graham Jas. Bluchr. Blcksmth. Sharpness
Greenfield Thomas, sergeant-major of Berkeley Squad of Royal Gloucestershire Hussars, & assistant overseer
Gregory & Son, saw mills, Wick
Grove Edward, saddler, Clapton
Grove Thomas, farmer, Appleridge farm
Hadley Frank & Sidney, millers, Purton
Hadley Ellis, miller, Oil mills
Hale Hannah (Mrs.), beer retailer
Harding Stephen, farmer Sanigar farm
Harding William C. Butcher, Sharpness
Harris Charles, farmer, Breadstone
Harris John, farmer, Breadstone
Hawker Sidney William, farmer, Wick
Hawker William, farmer, Hamfallow
Hodder George, Berkeley Arms, Purton
Hodder James. Shopkeeper, Sharpness
Hooper Thomas, farmer, Newport
Isaac James, grocer
James Thomas, carpenter
Jenkins Egbert, Mariners' Arms
Johns & Son, shop chandlers, Sharpness
Jones Daniel, Passage House, Purton
Jones Robert C. Farmer, Halmore
Jones William Cox, farmer Woodford
Kerman Chas. Ship engineer, Sharpness
King John, jun. Salmon fisher, Ham
King Joseph, farmer, New park
King Samuel, boot & shoe maker
King Thomas, blacksmith
King Thos. Farmer & butcher, Bevington
King Thomas, jun. Assistant overseer for Ham & Stone, Bevington
King William, farmer, Bevington
Knight Edmund, baker, Woodford
Knight James, beer retailer, Bevington
Lane John Alfred, grocer & outfitter, Sharpness
Legge David & Son, auctioneers
Leonard Geo. Nelmes, farmer Brown'smill